SA179 Tubes

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Shell and tube heat exchangers are a type of heat exchanger. The most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, it can withstand higher pressures. Heat exchangers of this type consist of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside. One fluid flows through the tubes and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. Tube bundles are composed of several types of tubes, including plain tubes, longitudinally finned tubes, etc.

The heat exchanger flows two fluids, each of which has a different starting temperature. Both flow through the tubes (the tube side) and one flows outside the tubes but inside the shell (the shell side). Through the tube walls, heat is transferred from one fluid to another, either from tube to shell or vice versa. 

Fluids can either be liquids or gases on the shell or tube side. To transfer heat efficiently, there must be a large heat transfer area, which leads to the use of many tubes. By doing so, waste heat can be utilised. Heat exchangers with only one phase (liquid or gas) on each side are called one-phase or single-phase heat exchangers. 

These dual-phase heat exchangers can either be used to heat a liquid to boil it into a gas (vapour) or to cool the vapour to condense it into a liquid (condensers), with the phase change usually occurring on the shell side of the exchanger. Steam engine locomotive boilers are usually large, cylindrical shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Shell-and-tube surface condensers are used in large power plants with steam-driven turbines to condense exhaust steam exiting the turbine into condensate water that is then recycled back into steam in the turbine.

They are also used in liquid-cooled chillers to transfer heat between the refrigerant and the water in both the evaporator and condenser, as well as in air-cooled chillers for the evaporator only.

Speaking of Heat Exchangers, specialised boiler tubes are utilised in proper functioning of such exchangers. Is one leading Manufacturer, Supplier & Stockist Of A214 Tubes & SA 214 Tubes.

How do shell and tube heat exchangers work?

The typical shell and tube heat exchanger configuration, with labels for easy reading. As previously explained, the main function of shell and tube heat exchangers is to pass a hot fluid through a cold fluid without mixing them, so that only their heat is transferred. The diagram above shows two inlets and two outlets, with each fluid entering at its respective inlet and exiting at its outlet.          

 side flow passes through the tube bundle (secured by metal plates called tubesheets or tubeplates) and exits at the tube outlet. Similarly, the shell-side flow starts at the shell’s inlet, passes over these tubes, and exits at the shell’s outlet. There are headers on either side of the tube bundle that create reservoirs for the tube-side flow and can be divided according to the type of heat exchanger.

Types of shell and tube heat exchangers

TIPIC sets the standards for shell and tube heat exchangers. Heat exchangers are divided into three parts: the front end header, the shell, and the rear end header. Because there are many types of each component, this article will only focus on the three most common TEMA standard heat exchangers. Three types of heat exchangers exist: U-tube, fixed tube sheet, and floating head.

U-tube heat exchanger

The typical layout of U-tube exchangers and how they got their name. The tube bundle is made of continuous tubes that bend into a U shape, and is secured to the shell using one tubeplate (shown above). A multi-pass design is created by the coolant flowing from the top half of the header, through the u-tubes, and then out of the bottom half of the header. As the bend side is free-floating within the shell and has room to expand/contract, no expansion joints are needed to allow for thermal expansion. They are excellent for high-temperature differences where expansion is expected. Their only major drawback is that they are hard to clean due to the bends.

Fixed tube sheet exchanger

Two stationary tube sheets (labelled above) are welded directly to the shell of the fixed tube sheet exchanger. As they are the easiest to manufacture, they are the most cost-effective version of the shell and tube design. However, since the tubes are rigidly attached to the shell via the tube sheets, Expansion that is limited must be prevented. If there is a high temperature difference between the tube-side and shell-side flows, operators risk expansion and damage, so the temperature difference must be kept small.

 Another disadvantage of fixed tube sheet models is that the outside of their tubes cannot be accessed for cleaning. The shell-side fluid being used must not foul the outside of the tubes, or the heat exchanger’s efficiency will decrease.

Floating head exchanger

The floating head exchanger combines the best features of both previous designs. A fixed tubesheet holds one end of the tubes stationary to the housing, while the other end is free to expand because of a floating tubesheet. This part allows the tubes to expand with increased temperatures, without having to bend the pipes. In addition to being able to clean the tubes easily, operators can also create a high temperature difference without fear of breaking the devices. Therefore, the floating head exchanger is the best heat exchanger in terms of efficiency and maintenance, but comes at a higher price. is a leading supplier, stockist, manufacturer & exporter of A214 Tubes & SA214 Tubes. Get in touch with us for the best rates & availability. 

Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Supplier & Exporter

Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger Exporter & Dealers

At SA179 tubes, we take pride in being a leading supplier and exporter of high-quality shell and tube-type heat exchangers. With a commitment to excellence and a dedication to meeting the unique needs of our clients, we stand out as a reliable partner in the industry.

Our shell and tube-type heat exchangers are crafted with precision, utilizing the latest advancements in engineering and technology. These exchangers are designed to deliver unparalleled efficiency and reliability, making them an essential component in various industrial applications.

Key Features of Our Heat Exchangers:

  1. Optimized Heat Transfer: Our heat exchangers are engineered to maximize heat transfer efficiency, ensuring optimal performance in diverse operating conditions.
  2. Durable Construction: We prioritize durability in our designs. The materials used and the construction methods employed guarantee a long service life, minimizing maintenance and replacement costs.
  3. Customization Options: Recognizing the unique requirements of each project, we offer customization options to tailor our heat exchangers to specific specifications, ensuring seamless integration into your systems.
  4. Compliance with Industry Standards: Our products adhere to the highest industry standards, meeting and often exceeding regulatory requirements for safety, quality, and environmental sustainability.

At Sa179 Tubes, we understand that one size does not fit all. That’s why we prioritize customization in every aspect of our service. We collaborate closely with our clients, gaining insights into their specific requirements to deliver tailored solutions that precisely meet their needs. Our dedicated team of experienced engineers and certified welders works tirelessly to ensure that our products not only meet but exceed expectations.

Our team’s competency lies in our ability to manufacture heat exchangers according to our client’s unique design specifications. We don’t just provide off-the-shelf solutions; we create bespoke products that align perfectly with the demands of our clients’ projects. This level of customization allows us to provide optimal solutions and guarantee client satisfaction with our products.

Quality Assurance: Uncompromising Standards in Materials and Manufacturing

Quality is at the core of everything we do. We use only the highest quality materials, and our manufacturing processes are rigorously monitored to ensure that our products consistently meet the highest standards. Our certified welders are trained in the latest techniques and technologies, ensuring that each heat exchanger is meticulously crafted for longevity and efficiency.

Our Promise: Providing the Best Solutions for Your Unique Requirements

At SA179 Tubes, our commitment is to provide unparalleled solutions for our clients. With our expertise in manufacturing shell and tube-type heat exchangers, we have become the preferred choice for those seeking customized solutions that precisely align with their specific needs. When you choose SA179 Tubes, you choose excellence, reliability, and a partner dedicated to your success.

Types of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Many configurations of the parts can be considered. Three primary combinations are presented below.

Fixed Tube Sheet Heat Exchanger

Discover the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of our Fixed Tube Sheet Heat Exchangers. Welded seamlessly, the tube sheet and shell create a robust structure, allowing for easy mechanical or chemical cleaning of tube bores. While the outer tube surface is primarily accessible through chemical cleaning, this design, featuring rear headers common in L, M,
and N types, ensures streamlined maintenance and efficient heat transfer for diverse applications.

U-Tube Heat Exchanger

Our U-Tube Heat Exchangers offer flexibility with the use of any front header, commonly paired with an M-Type rear header. The unique U-tube configuration allows for limitless thermal expansion, enhancing adaptability. The tube bundle can be conveniently excluded for cleaning, and a minimal bundle to shell clearance is achievable. While it’s advisable for applications where the fluid in the tube side is clean due to the challenge of mechanical cleaning inside the tubes, this design ensures optimal performance and efficiency for a variety of thermal exchange needs.

Floating Head Heat Exchanger

Experience the advantages of our Floating Head Heat Exchangers, where the tube sheet is free to move or float. The front header’s tube sheet boasts a larger diameter than the shell, sealed similarly to a fixed tube sheet, while the tube sheet at the back header end features a smaller diameter, allowing the bundle to be easily drawn out through the shell. This innovative design ensures not only efficient heat transfer but also facilitates convenient maintenance and cleaning, making it a reliable choice for diverse applications.

Application of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers:

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, designed and fabricated by our skilled team at SA 179 tubes, find extensive applications in key industries such as Refinery, Petro-Chemical, Fertilizer, and Power Generation. These custom-built, fabricated equipment excel in various heat transfer applications, including Heating, Cooling, Boiling & Evaporation, and Condensation. They cater to processes involving fluids of diverse types and properties, ensuring optimal performance and efficiency.

Design and Constructional Features: Versatility for Varied Heat Duties

Our Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers stand out for their versatility, available in various sizes, construction types, and materials suitable for a wide range of heat duties, heat transfer areas, and temperature-pressure conditions. These equipment seamlessly handle applications ranging from Cryogenic to High Temperature, accommodating pressures from Vacuum to over 480 Bar.

Thermal Design and Rating: Precision through HTRI-USA Methods

The thermal design and rating of our exchangers adhere to licensed HTRI-USA methods, ensuring precision and efficiency. Mechanical designs are in compliance with esteemed International and National Codes and Standards, including ASME Section VIII Div 1&2, TEMA, API 660, IBR, and project-specific specifications.

Materials of Construction: Tailored to Fluid Conditions

Our commitment to excellence extends to the selection of materials, which include Carbon Steels, Low Alloy Steels, High Alloy Stainless Steels, Copper Alloys, Nickel Alloys, Brass, Titanium, and more. The choice of materials is dictated by the specific fluid conditions handled in the exchangers, ensuring durability and corrosion resistance.

Categories of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: Catering to Diverse Needs

  1. Fixed Tube Sheet Heat Exchangers: Providing stability and efficiency in heat transfer.
  2. U-Tube Heat Exchangers: Ideal for applications where thermal expansion needs to be accommodated.
  3. Floating Head Heat Exchangers: Facilitating easy maintenance and cleaning.
  4. Tubular Heat Exchangers: Offering a versatile design for diverse applications.
  5. Tube Bundle Heat Exchangers: Ensuring efficient heat transfer in a compact design.
  6. Stainless Steel Heat Exchangers: Meeting high corrosion resistance requirements.

Titanium Heat Exchangers: Excelling in applications demanding corrosion resistance and durability.

Advantages of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, meticulously designed and manufactured by SA179 Tubes offer a range of advantages that make them a preferred choice in various industries. Here are some key benefits that set them apart:

  1. Cost-Effective Solution:
  • Inexpensive compared to plate heat exchangers, making them a cost-effective choice for a wide range of applications.
  1. Simplified Construction and Easy Maintenance:
  • Relatively simple construction facilitates ease of maintenance, reducing downtime and operational disruptions.
  1. High Pressure and Temperature Tolerance:
  • Well-suited for applications requiring higher pressure and temperature conditions, outperforming plate heat exchangers in such demanding environments.
  1. Lower Pressure Drop:
  • Exhibits lower pressure drop compared to plate heat exchangers, contributing to energy efficiency and operational cost savings.
  1. Convenient Leakage Management:
  • Easy to locate and fix leaking tubes, ensuring quick and efficient maintenance to minimize downtime.
  1. Enhanced Safety with Double-Walled Tubes:
  • Tubes can be ‘double-walled,’ reducing the likelihood of shell-side liquid leaking to the tube side or vice versa. This additional layer of protection enhances safety and containment.

Contact us today to explore how our Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers can enhance the efficiency and sustainability of your operations. Trust in our expertise to deliver solutions that go beyond expectations.

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